Between 1328 and 1329 the Sultan increased the land tax in the Doab—the land between the Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna rivers—but the taxpayers resisted it, especially because a severe drought coincided. He can cancelled own policies because of wrong execution. 1. Why was Mohammed bin tughlaq known as man of ideas but a failure in as an administration 2 ... Muhammad bBin Tughlaq was not a skilled administrator and he was ambitious and also provides various policies. 3. Religious classes – Muhammad bin Tughlaq also tried to induct into the administration members of the religious classes, especially the sufis. As an ambitious ruler with a fancy for innovations in policy matters both in foreign and domestic affairs, Muhammad Tughluq (full name- Muhammad Bin Tughluq) had a desire to conquer not only the entire Indian subcontinent but also Khurasan outside its boundary. On his accession, Alauddin Khilji appointed Khwaja Khatir to the office of Wizarat. It is generally held that Juna Khan was responsible for the murder of his father. [CDS 1993] A: 756 A.D. B: 712 A.D. C: 1012 A.D. D: 1022 A.D. Answer. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq Biography Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most remarkable and interesting ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty. Muḥammad ibn Tughluq, (born c. 1290, Delhi, India—died March 20, 1351, Sonda, Sindh [now in Pakistan]), second sultan of the Tughluq dynasty (reigned 1325–51), who briefly extended the rule of the Delhi sultanate of northern India over most of the subcontinent. A coin from the period of Muhammad ibn Tughluq (reigned 1325–51). In the four pages of his so-called autobiography, Muḥammad’s only surviving literary work, he confesses that he had wavered from traditional orthodoxy to philosophic doubts and then found his way to a rational faith.  He was born in Multan. His introduction of token currency, coins of baser metal with the face value of silver coins, however, failed dismally. He introduced several reforms in the monetary system, and his coins, in design as well as in workmanship and purity of metal, excelled those of his predecessors. Muhammad bin Quasim 2. He ravaged the country from Multan and Lahore to the outskirts of Delhi. Muḥammad was the first ruler to introduce rotation of crops, establish state farms, and tend cultivation and improve artificial irrigation by establishing a department of agriculture. He died with a smile on his face and verses of his own composition on his lips. Muḥammad ibn Tughluq, (born c. 1290, Delhi, India—died March 20, 1351, Sonda, Sindh [now in Pakistan]), second sultan of the Tughluq dynasty (reigned 1325–51), who briefly extended the rule of the Delhi sultanate of northern India over most of the subcontinent. They failed because of the harshness of the Sultan in executing them, the challenge they posed to the privileged classes, the general lethargy and conservatism of his subjects, and the expansion of the empire with which Muḥammad’s administrative machinery could not cope. MUHAMMAD-BIN- TUGHLUQ  Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty. He put of Saundhar loans given by Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq to the people. Doab is a fertile alluvial tract lying between the rivers Ganga and the Yamuna. He possessed an encyclopaedic knowledge of the Qurʾān, Muslim jurisprudence, astronomy, logic, philosophy, medicine, and rhetoric. After ascending the throne, he assumed the name of Muhammad Tughlaq. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Revenue Reforms: Muhammad […] The addresses of the General President and the Presidents of the six sections generally take up broad issues of interpretation and historical debate. A projected Khorāsān expedition (1327–28) that never materialized was intended to secure more defensible frontiers in the west. Revenue Reforms 2.  Juna khan took up the title of muhammad Tughluq. Updates? After the death of Ghias-ud-Din Tughlaq (1320-25) who was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty, his eldest son Juna Khan ascended the throne of Delhi. B: Ghazni from Mahmud. C: Timur Long. He was a profound scholar of Persian, a penetrating critic, a litterateur of repute. He was a brilliant personality who had full command over mathematics and medicine. Transfer of the Capital (1326-1327 A.D.) 5. 3. a. Hindi b. Persian c. Arabian d. None of these. Very little is known of his childhood, but he apparently received a good education. He appointed Khan-i-Jahan Maqbal, a Telugu Brahmin convert as wazir (prime minister). The Indian History Congress is the major national organisation of Indian historians, and has occupied this position since its founding session under the name of Modern History Congress, held at Poona in 1935. Administration and Consolidation. He faced many revolts and rebellions. D: Muhammad Gori. This journal has appeared annually since 1935 except for five different years when the annual sessions of the Indian History Congress could not be held. The Introduction of Token Currency (1329-1330 A.D.). His rule lasted for about 26 years (1325-1351). https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muhammad-ibn-Tughluq, MapsofIndia.com - Biography of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Sévigné, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de, ILoveIndia.com - Biography of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq, Indianetzone - Biography of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Muhammad ibn Tughluq - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). According to him, Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq was disgusted with the life of Delhi because he was getting almost daily many anonymous letters from the people of the city abusing and criticizing him and therefore, he wanted to leave it for good. But he was not able to prevent forging the new coins. The Dynasty spread across the country. This further drained the royal treasury. He was the successor of Ghazi Tughlaq. As his reign began, Muḥammad attempted, without much success, to enlist the services of the Ê¿ulamāʾ, the Muslim divines, and the Sufis, the ascetic mystics. In south India, Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq had annexed Telingana and a large part of Malabar Coast. Muḥammad was the son of the sultan Ghiyāth al-DÄ«n Tughluq. ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the top five domestic policies laid down by Muhammad Bin Tughluq. All contemporary historians based their assessment of Muḥammad on his administrative measures, which were neither vicious nor visionary. It has at present over 7,000 ordinary and life members. Comparison between the Administration of Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughlaq The Administration of Delhi Sultanate was largely influenced by their religion. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The expansion of Delhi Sultanate took place under the reign of Balban, Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad- Bin-Tughlaq. Kublai Khan issued paper money in China. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was a bunch of paradoxes that proved hazardous for not only his own good as well as for the Delhi Sultanate. Domestic Policy # 1.  Ghiyas-ud-Din-Tughluq was succeeded by his son prince Juna khan. In 1329-30 Muhammad bin Tughlaq introduced a token currency. In 1325 A.D. Junakhan, the crown prince sworn the title Muhammad-bin-Tughluq. © 2008 Indian History Congress He ruled up to 1351. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. After, the failure of two reforms and in order to overcome financial difficulties. Quiz: Chapter - 3 The Delhi Sultans Class - 7th Quiz - 2 To have reliable governors the early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish’ favoured their special slaves purchased for military service called ‘Bandage’ in Persian. 2. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Related posts: Give an Introduction to Administration of Muhammad Tughluq Brief notes on some […] He lived in constant conflict between faith and action, faith in the correctness of his policies and action in the means by which he sought to implement them. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Muḥammad’s last expedition, against the rebel ṬaghÄ«, ended with his death at Sonda in Sindh in 1351. To still his own doubts, as well as to counteract the opposition of the Muslim divines, he obtained from the titular caliph in Cairo a manshÅ«r (patent of royalty) legitimizing his authority. Realising his folly, Muhammad bin Tughlaq issued genuine silver coins on the place of copper coins. In the words of a contemporary, “the Sultan was rid of the people and the people of the Sultan.”. Q. Whatever may be the fact Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ordered for the transfer of capital in 1327 A.D. Director, Historical Research Institute; Head, Department of History, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 1960–65. Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. The Sultan wanted to use the Sufis’ prestigious position to stabilize his authority as ruler. a. Allauddin Khalji b. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq c. Both a and b d. None of these. When famine broke out in northern India (1338–40), he moved his residence to Swargdawari to supervise famine relief measures himself. He ruled from 1324 to 1351 AD. The papers included in the Proceedings can be held to represent fairly well the current trends of historical research in India. Ancient, 2. Answer. ADVERTISEMENTS: (1) The Delhi Sultanate was not free from external dangers during the reign of Muhammad Tughluq. Muhammad bin Tughlaq ruled over the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent and the Deccan from 1325 to 1351 AD. ... Who were two rulers to mobilize a large standing army in Delhi? Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most interesting personalities of Medieval Indian history. Medieval and 3. Out of the following plans, which one does not belong to him? Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’s Wazir had four Dabirs (Secretaries) under him, each of whom had a staff of 300 clerks. The journal has constantly taken the view that ‘India’ for its purpose is the country with its Pre-Partition boundaries, while treats Contemporary History as the history of Indian Union after 1947. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq(1325-51), the eldest son and successor of Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, was one of the most ambitious and powerful Sultans of Tughlaq dynasty. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq stood for the administrative and political unity of India. 1.Shifting capital to Devagiri 2.Issuing Bronze currency 3.Increasing taxes in Doab 4.adopting the policy of Blood and Iron Thus, he appointed Khan-i-Jahan Maqbul who had been trained by Muhammad bin Tughlaq as the wazir, and left much of the work of the administration to him. What were Garrison towns? Muhammad Tughlaq increased the taxes in the Doab region as he was in need of money for raising a large army. Although he humiliated them, he could not break their opposition and succeeded only in dispersing them from the towns of northern India. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Sultan Muḥammad was among the most controversial and enigmatic figures of the 14th century. Yet they had always refused any association with government and would not accept any grants or offices except under duress. The Sultans were the head of … Failing to win the Ê¿ulamāʾ over, he tried to curtail their powers, as some of his predecessors had, by placing them on an equal footing with other citizens. There was a shortage of silver through out the world in the fourteenth century. To improve the financial condition he gave promotion to horticulture. Sukhmani studied about Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's administration and his visionary plans. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was interested in Persian poetry, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy and was also noted a philosopher. Muhammad Tughlaq captured Kondhana or Singharh from Nag Nayak. Which Sultan is known as the ‘Mixture of Opposites’? Its name was then changed to Indian History Congress's from its second session held in 1938, and three section, 1. This item is part of JSTOR collection In the same manner, Muhammad bin Tughlaq issued copper coins at par with the value of the silver tanka coins. He was well-versed in the religious topics and fluent in both Arabic and Persian. A: Muhammad bin Quasim. When was the Arab conquest of Sindh taken place? Ziyāʾ al-DÄ«n BaranÄ«, his close companion and counsellor for 17 years, often advised him to abdicate, but Muḥammad disdainfully rejected his advice. Thus there has been a growth of papers on women’s history, environmental and regional history. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Muhammad Tughlaq made fresh annexations in the south. The Karajil (Garhwal-Kumaon) expedition (1329–30), an attempt to adjust the boundary dispute with the northern hill states then dominated by China, ended in disaster, but it was followed by an exchange of emissaries between China and Delhi. 756 A.D. 3. Corrections? From his accession to the throne in 1325 until his death in 1351, Muḥammad contended with 22 rebellions, pursuing his policies consistently and ruthlessly. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Taxation in Doab (1525-27 A.D.) 3. AD) records that Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq had appointed a 232 IHC: Proceedings, 69th Session, 2008 Hindu Sai Raj as his wazir 41 The office of the wazir was called the diwan-i … Firuz Tughlaq tried to cherish the nobility which had remained loyal to Muhammad bin Tughlaq. It is now going to hold its 77th annual session at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, on 28-30 December 2016. Omissions? Welfare King was the name given to him. In 1327, Tughluq ordered to move his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad (in present-day Maharashtra) in the Deccan region of India. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1361A.D.) Taxation in Doab. Because of his appeasement policy. The annual journal of the Indian History Congress, entitled The Proceedings of the Indian History Congress carries research papers selected out of papers presented at its annual sessions on all aspects and periods of Indian History from pre-history to contemporary times as well as the history of countries other than India. He was replaced by Nusrat Khan in 1297. In 1327 A.D. he captured Warangal. In 1321–22 his father sent him against the city of Warangal in the Deccan, in which campaign, after initial reverses, he subdued the rebellious Hindu rajas. All Rights Reserved. Administration and Consolidation. Daulatabad was also situated at a central place so the administration of both the north and the south could be possible. Ever since 1938 the organisation has been able regularly to hold its sessions each year, except for certain years of exceptional national crises. The policies are: 1. One of the most controversial rulers in India was Mohammed bin Tughlaq. Muhammad Tughlaq conquered it though he restored it back to its ruler after his acceptance of suzerainty of Delhi. Firoz Tughlaq (1351-1388) After the death of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq in 1351 Firoz Tughlaq had the unique distinction of being chosen as sultan by the nobles. Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr MalikJauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. Ibn Battutah, the North African Arab traveler, came India during Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq’s period and he had written the detailed description of the Muhammad’s kingdom. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Muhammad bin Tughlaq himself had spent a number of years as a prince on campaign in the southern states during the reign of his father. Author of. Therefore, both Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq try to keep the ulema’s advice aside and to bring in secularism in administration. He was a great scholar of Persian and Arabic. The conquest of Nagarkot in the foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India was based on Muḥammad’s policy of establishing secure frontiers. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Proceedings of the Indian History Congress The expansion of Delhi Sultanate took place under the reign of Balban, Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad- Bin-Tughlaq. Administration of Alauddin Khalji vs Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. A controversial ruler with a unique streak of intellectual creativity, Muhammad bin Tughlaq was one of the few Sultans of Delhi who received a comprehensive literary, religious and philosophical education. As an administrative measure it failed, but it had far-reaching cultural effects. Muḥammad tried every measure, conciliatory or coercive, to yoke them to his political wagon. Attempt to Improve Agriculture 4. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. The spread of the Urdu language in the Deccan may be traced to this extensive influx of Muslims. He was, however, not a good soldier. A born revolutionary, he desired to create a more equitable social order by making Islam a religion of service rather than a means of exploitation. The transfer of the capital in 1327 to Deogir (now Daulatabad) was intended to consolidate the conquests in southern India by large-scale—in some cases forced—migration of the people of Delhi to Deogir. As a result of misguided administrative actions and unexampled severity toward his opponents, he eventually lost his authority in the south; at the end of his reign, the sultanate had begun to decline in power. Muhammad bin Tughluq prevented the ulama from interfering with administration, besides abolishing his privileges and also brought them to the periphery of justice (governing the ulemas). ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. Firoz Shah Tughlaq strictly followed the advice of Ulemas in running the administration. In his address the organisation's first President, Professor Shafaat Ahmad Khan called upon Indian historians to study all aspects of history, rather than only political history and to emphasize the integrative factors in the past.  Muhammad succeeded to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325. To have reliable governors the early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish’ favoured their special slaves purchased for military service called ‘Bandage’ in … In 1328-29, Tarmashirin Khan, the Chaghatai chief of Transoxiana, invaded India. Other senior nobles, such as … 9. Modern were created for simultaneous discussions. Examples. This end, he believed, could be achieved only by a strong centralized authority based on justice and patronage of the poor, the learned, and the pious and on the suppression of rebellions mainly of the privileged classes in a tradition-ridden society. Jauna Khan ascended the throne in 1325 AD with the title of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. Request Permissions. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Muhammad bin Tughlaq included two foreigners and Hindus along with Indian Muslims in … He introduced some … A dauntless soldier, he was tolerant in religion and was normally humane and humble, but these traits were vitiated at times by cruelty sometimes approaching the inhuman. He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. What was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans? Issued copper coins at par muhammad bin tughlaq administration the title of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq a and b d. None of these had! Invaded India use the Sufis’ prestigious position to stabilize his authority as ruler succeeded in. Right to your inbox dangers during the reign of Muhammad Tughluq thus there has been regularly... Tughluq dynasty known of his own good as well as for the of! 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